TRAFIG introduces a novel perspective on protracted displacement situations (PDS) that will improve the protection and resilience of refugees and enhance trust and cooperation between refugees and host communities. It considers the transnational and local connectivity of displaced people and host communities as well as their capability of mobility as socioeconomic and sociopsychological resources that displaced people use and upon which their resilience relies. The project will develop a rapid assessment tool to identify the most vulnerable groups in PDS and to analyse interactions between displaced and host communities. As an evidence-based tool for creating impact, it will support policymakers and practitioners to enhance the self-reliance of displaced people as well as host-refugees relations through tailored programming and policy development. We closely cooperate with key stakeholders throughout the entire life cycle of the project. Our research is based on a novel concept of transnational figurations of displacement that combines the figuration model – a meso-level approach emphasizing the networks of interdependent human beings – with the transnationalism approach and state-of-the-art knowledge on forced displacement. Through comparative empirical research, both qualitative and quantitative, in camps and urban settings at sites in Asia, Africa, and Europe, TRAFIG will answer the following questions: (1) How do displaced people gain access to and make use of humanitarian and migration policies and programmes? (2) Why and how do displaced people live in vulnerable situations and sustain their livelihoods? How can policy support their self-reliance? (3) How do transnational networks shape refugees’ experiences and trajectories? (4) Which processes structure relations between displaced people and host communities? (5) What are the medium and long-term economic impacts of PDS? For more information see the project website at


Duration 01/01/2019 - 30/06/2022
Funding EU
Program H2020
Logo - European Union

Department for Migration and Globalisation

Center for Migration and Globalisation Research

Principle investigator for the project (University for Continuing Education Krems) Ass.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Albert Kraler
Project website


Ferreira, N.; Kea, P; Kraler, A.; Wagner, M. (2022). The EU and protracted displacement: providing solutions or creating obstacles? Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, tbd: 10.1080/1369183X.2022.2090161

Etzold, B.; Isikozlu, E.; Christ, S.; Morosanu, L.; Kraler, A.; Pastore, F.; Jacobs, C.; Vlastou, F.; Papatzani, E.; Siotou, A.; Hatziprokopiou, P.; Buchenau, B.; Momani, F. Tobin, S.; Al Yakoub, T.; Al Jarrah, R. (2022). Nothing is more permanent than the temporary – Understanding protracted displacement and people's own responses. BICC, Bonn

Katsiaficas, C.; Wagner, M.; Pastore, F., Hatziprokopiou, P.; Etzold, B.; Kraler, A. (2021). How easing mobility restrictions within Europe can help forced migrants rebuild their lives. BICC, TRAFIG Policy Brief, 6, Bonn

Kraler, A.; Etzold, B.; Ferreira, N. (2021). Understanding the dynamics of protracted displacement. Couldrey, M.; Philip, A., Forced Migration Review, 68: 49-52, Forced Migration Review, Oxford

Ferreira, N.; Jacobs, C.; Kea, P.; Hendow, M.; Noack, M.; Wagner, M.; Adugna, F.; Alodat, A.M.; Ayalew, T.; Etzold, B.; Fogli, C.; Goumeros, T.; Hatziprokopiou, P.; Javed, M. M.; Kamanga, K. C.; Kraler, A.; Momani, F. A.; Roman; E. M. Alodat, T. Ayalew, B. Etzold, C. Fogli, T. Goumeros, P. Hatziprokopiou, M. M. Javed, K. C. Kamanga, A. Kraler, F. A. Momani, E. Roman (2020). Governing protracted displacement: An analysis across global, regional and domestic contexts. TRAFIG working paper 3, BICC, Bonn

Kraler, A. (2020). Addressing protracted displacement. Learning from the past. TRAFIG Practice Note no. 2 • 02/2020, BICC, Bonn

Kraler, A.; Fourer, M.; Knudsen, A.J.; Kwaks, J.; Mielke, K.; Noack, M.; Tobin, S.; & Wilson, C. (2020). Learning from the Past. Protracted displacement in the post-World War II period. TRAFIG working paper 2, BICC, Bonn

Etzold, B.; Belloni, M.; King, R.; Kraler, A.; Pastore, F. (2019). Transnational Figurations of Displacement - Conceptualising protracted displacement and trans-local connectivity through a process-oriented perspective. TRAFIG working paper 1/2019, BICC, Bonn


Is There Protracted Displacement in the European Union? An Explanatory Enquiry

The Future of Europe as a Place of Refuge, 05/12/2019

Is there protracted displacement in the European Union? An exploratory inquiry

Refuge Europe: A question of solidarity? Chemnitz, Germany, 01/10/2019

How do protracted displacement situations unfold? Lessons from the past

Transnational Figurations of Displacement: Investigating protracted displacement through the lens of transnationalism, University of Sussex, Falmer,, 05/06/2019

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