While digitalization of schools has been addressed from many angles in Europe, less attention has been paid to the impact of investments in teacher preparation and training on student learning. The general assumption of the project is that by improving teachers’ pedagogical digital competence (PDC), the quality of education can be raised and the main aim of this project is to identify and understand the conditions to improve teachers’ PDC. The project aims to evaluate selected policy measures in the field of teacher PDC in five countries as well as the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the different elements of training interventions on teachers’ PDC and student learning outcomes as well as measures of equity and inclusion. We propose a cost-benefit framework for effective teacher education that summarizes evidence on the costs and benefits of different methods so that future teachers are empowered to deal with the challenges of digitalization. The project also proposes national and EU-wide policy measures to improve teacher education for the future.